|PHOTOGRAPH BY KARINE AIGNER, NAT GEO IMAGE COLLECTION|
Global populations of freshwater fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals have sharply declined, a new study finds.
SOME HAVE SURVIVED for hundreds of millions of years, but many of the world’s freshwater megafauna—including sumo-sized stingrays, colossal catfish, giant turtles, and gargantuan salamanders—may soon find themselves on the brink of extinction, according to a new study published.
For the first time, researchers have quantified the global decline of freshwater megafauna—including fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals—and the results paint a grim picture. In four decades since 1970, the global populations of these freshwater giants have declined by almost 90 percent—twice as much as the loss of vertebrate populations on land or in the oceans.
Large fish species, such as sturgeons, salmons, and giant catfishes, are particularly threatened, with a 94 percent population decline. Most large freshwater reptile and many mammal species are also in trouble. The baiji, a Chinese river dolphin, is likely the first dolphin species driven to extinction by humans, and the Chinese paddlefish, which can grow 20 feet long, has not been seen in over a decade. Other species may be down to their last few individuals.
“This is a crisis of huge proportions that is not widely appreciated” says Zeb Hogan, a fish biologist at the University of Nevada, Reno, and a National Geographic Explorer who has studied the plight of freshwater megafish for two decades.
Hogan, WHO may be a author on the study revealed these days within the journal world modification Biology, says the troubled story of big fish specifically underscores the environmental crisis that several rivers and lakes round the world face these days. “Once the biggest animals go, it is a warning that we'd like to try to to one thing quickly to boost the scheme health of our rivers and lakes,” he says.
|PHOTOGRAPH BY TYRONE TURNER, NAT GEO IMAGE COLLECTION|
Freshwater ecosystems area unit usually less studied than their marine counterparts, despite being home to a 3rd of all vertebrate species and nearly half all fish species worldwide. whereas population declines are well-documented for each terrestrial and marine megafauna, few studies of huge fresh species are conducted on a world scale. (See stunning underwater photos of unmarked fresh animals.)
For the study, a team of international researchers compiled population knowledge on 126 out of 207 fresh species consideration a minimum of thirty kilograms (66 pounds) from 1970 to 2012, drawing partially on The Living Planet Index, a information managed by the Zoological Society of London in cooperation with the globe life Fund. whereas that index shows that populations of all fresh species declined by eighty three % throughout roughly constant amount, the new study shows an excellent higher rate of decline in massive fresh animals, at eighty eight %.
The study’s lead author, Fengzhi He, a fresh biologist at the Leibniz-Institute for fresh Ecology and interior Fisheries (IGB) in Berlin, says public awareness of the fresh variety crisis is proscribed, with many of us unaware that the large creatures even exist. “They don't seem to be like tigers, pandas, lions, or whales—species that receive a great deal of attention within the media and faculty education,” he says.
Among the biggest threats facing large freshwater species are overexploitation and habitat degradation, says He. Many of the these animals are targeted for meat, skin, and eggs. Megafish in particular tend to be more vulnerable than other fish to dams that block their migratory routes and limit access to spawning grounds. Large animals also tend to be slow to mature and have low reproduction rates, making them particularly vulnerable. (Read about how critically endangered giant fish are being poached to serve at restaurants.)
|PHOTOGRAPH BY MICHAEL NICHOLS, NAT GEO IMAGE COLLECTION|
Trouble on the Mekong
According to the study, the biogeographic zones that have seen the greatest declines in freshwater megafauna are Indomalaya (99 percent) and the Palearctic, which encompasses Europe, northern Africa, and northern Asia (97 percent). Now, Hogan says, the most critical region may be Southeast Asia, and in particular the Mekong River, which runs through China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. More than a thousand species of freshwater fish live in the Mekong, including many of the world’s largest. The Mekong giant catfish, for example, is the current record-holder for the world’s largest freshwater fish ever caught, at 646 pounds.
Hogan says he has not seen a Mekong giant catfish in the wild since 2015. Existing and planned dams on the river may drive the species to extinction. He and other researchers are not sure what the ecological consequences of such fish disappearing will be, but in the case of the Mekong, it could threaten the food security and livelihoods of millions of people living along the river.
Amid the grim overall findings, the study did suggest that 13 freshwater megafauna species have seen their populations stabilize or even grow. Among them are the green sturgeon and the American beaver, both in the United States. In Europe, the Eurasian beaver has returned to many regions from where it had once disappeared, and in Cambodia, the population of Irrawaddy river dolphins has increased for the first time in 20 years.
“We don’t want this to be a situation of only doom and gloom,” says He, the freshwater ecologist. “We want to inform people about this biodiversity crisis but also show them that there is still hope to protect these giant freshwater species—that it can be done.”